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Ornamental plants


Some flowers can be sown directly in the field : sweet peas, sweet alysum, opium poppies, delphinum cultorum. Other, like zinnias, gazanias, aster chinensis, tobacco plants, hoary stocks, whiteweeds, sages should be sown indoors. In unheated tunnels and in hotbeds should be sown: cape marigolds, nemesias, golden everlastings, china pinks. In a propagator should be grown:calendulas, aquilegias, alpine asters, carpatian harebells.


In the second half of the month summer and autumn flowering perennials should be propagated: sneezeweeds, garden delphinums, astilbes, mums, goldenrods. Moreover, we should take of covers from the flower bulbs. Then, we supply them with nutrients, for example Azofoska – 25 - 30 g/m². The second dose of the fertilizer can be given after 2-3 weeks. Geraniums and fuchsias should be transferred from a cool place, where they spent the winter months, to a more sunny and warm place. We water them intensively. Ornamental grasses should be cut at a height of 10 cm.


Vegetable patch


After the soil is thawed, we supply with nutrients perennials like: rhubarb, sorrel, onion siedmiolatka, chives and spices. Moreover, in this month we should prepare garden beds for planting. If the soil was dug in late autumn, the soil shouldn't be dug in spring because it will destroy the structure of the soil and accelerate water loss. The soil should be soften and smoothed out with a rake. Plants which were sown indoors in February should be transferred to a bigger containers, in order to protect them from drying out. These plants should be moved and left in a cold place, for hardening them off. March is the best time to buy garden seeds. Seeds should be acquired in original packages and expiry date should be checked each time we buy them.


Other garden works


Moreover, we should tide the garden. During cloudy and windless weather we take off covers from perennials and shrubs. We get rid of the remains of dead plants and remove leaves from flower beds. Peat and bark, which was used as litter, should be left in the garden. Both bark and peat will help to protect the soil from weeds, enrich the soil with nutrients and hinder water loss. We plant trees and shrubs that exhibit a low ability to regenerate their root system: magnolias, azaleas, hollies and susceptible to frost damage: larches, clematises, summer lilacs. Also fruit and ornamental trees should be planted right now: raspberries and blackberries. March is the best month to whitewash fruit trees again and supply ornamental shrubs with mineral fertilizer. We should also water plants growing in containers to protect them from physiological drought. Pruning of fruit trees and ornamental shrubs should be done during sunny and windless weather at temperature close to zero




April is a crucial month for our garden. The condition of our plants will depend on the amount and the quality of nutrients we use to supply them at the beginning of spring. It regards both micro ( B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn) and macroelements ( N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S). Plants derive nutrients from the soil, so it is up to us to provide the soil with appropriate amount of nutrients to enable plants to grow and develop properly, and produce fruits. The quality of the soil depends upon a variety of factors such as: pH, the amount of organic matter, water-to-air ratio, the amount of nutrients. Agrotechnical works, which should be performed in spring, will without doubt improve the soil structure during the gardening season.




At the end of April and at the beginning of May, when tulips bloom, we should examine carefully all the plants to make sure they are not suffering from viruses and other diseases. Virus-infected plant flowers have characteristic yellow blurs and stripes on their surface. Some varieties with dark red or violet flowers may be covered with darker stripes. Not only flowers, but also leaves might be infected. The leaves of infected flowers are usually covered with irregular and small bright spots. Plants suffering from viruses are usually smaller and their growth is slower. Because viruses are spread by aphids and nematodes, the lack of examination may lead to the destruction of all the plants. At the end of April we should cut the flowers out, leaving only the stem and the leaves. The purpose of this activity is to prevent the plants from producing seeds, which may have a negative influence on the bulbs growth



Spring Vegetable Patch


In the first week of May seeds of late carrot, parsley, beetroot and spring onion varieties should be sown. We supply seedlings of thermophilic vegetables with combine fertilizer and treat them with fungicide. We can sow seed of savoy cabbage and curly kale that might be used as catch crop. From the beginning of May, we can also plant seedlings of tomato and cucumber in unheated tunnels or cold frames. In the second half of the month seedlings of tomato, root celery, leaf celery, cucumber, pumpkin, marrow, courgette, scallopini squash, spinach, marjoram and basil should be planted in the field. At this point we can also sow beans for their seeds and a bit later green beans. To ensure continued harvest (since July to September), beans should be sown at regular time intervals. Water melon, pepper and melon seedlings may be sown in unheated tunnels. If we want to plant these plants under open filed conditions, we should wait until the end of May or The beginning of June.


Throughout the entire month of May we can plant seedling of leek in the field, but the seedlings should be hardened off before it. Seedlings, which were planted in the ground, may be susceptible to late frostbite. This is why the plants should be covered with an agricultural nonwoven crop cover that should be removed after three weeks.





Calendar summer begins on June 22, but it comes much earlier. The warm, long days and sufficient rainfall makes plants grow luxuriantly. Unfortunately the weeds are also growing fast and we must spend more time on removing them. In June, most of garden plants are in phase of dynamic growth and requires a lot of water for optimal development. During the dry weather we need to ensure that plants are provided with right amount of water. Irrigation should be made in such way that the soil has constantly moist to a depth of 10 cm. Mulching ground with bark, padding with nursery mat or loosening will protect from evaporation of water from the ground and in addition will inhibit the development of weeds. An important step is to remove the flowers which are out of bloom because the formation of seeds reduces plant growth Inflorescences of rhododendrons and azaleas we strip gently, while the other flowers we cut with pruning shears. Leave only those where we want to get the seeds.


Trees and shrubs. We can reproduce five-leafers, privets, honeysuckles and other shrubs by ourself. To do this we have to prepare seedlings. We cut off the low woody stems 7-15 cm long, green tops and the lower part of the leaf. The large leaves are shortened of about 1/3. To speed up the rooting we dive the ends of seedlings in rooting media. Seedlings we locate in boxes filled with peat and sand in a ratio of 2:1. Cover containers with foil or fibre to maintain proper humidity and set on a half shadow place. After about 30 days, rooted plants we can replant to the permanently place. In June you can also reproduce some plants (eg Mock) by layering. This procedure consists in bending the shoot and diving it 10 – 15 cm to the ground, however the top should be left on the surface. In place of the cavity (the hole) we attach the shoot to the ground and the upper part we tie to the stake to grow vertically. Plants with long, flexible stems (such as clematis, Virginia creeper), you can dig in the ground in several places. To accelerate the production of roots we can make an incisions on them. Above the ground should be a shoot with at least one bud above the ground. After formation of new roots we cut off a new shoot from parent-plant and treat it as rooted seedling. At this time deciduous hedges grow quickly, therefore cutting is recommended. It's conveniently to use an electric or gas hedge trimmers to this.


Roses. We have to remember varieties of roses which repeat blooming need to sprout new buds, you also need to systematically remove the fading flowers. From multiflorous roses, which forming flowers in bundles, we remove a single faded flowers, while in the large-flowered roses wilting flowers removed together with two leaves, cutting the shoot just above the base of the third leaf. Roses grafted at this time develop a lot of wild shoots that need to be removed immediately so do not weaken the precious plant.


Lawn. It should be mowed regularly, preferably every week and the mowed grass must be carefully removed from the lawn. Hot, sunny days and low air humidity can cause drying of the grass. To avoid this, lawn should be watered every 2-3 days in the early morning or evening. We also need to remember about fertilize by compound fertilizers. Weeds need to be removed by hand. Aeration can be done if you have not done this yet.


Bulb plants June is the time to dig tulips. Leaving them in the second year or more causes thickening of bulbs.


An ornamental pond. In the summer, when the temperatures are high water evaporates quickly, therefore we need to regularly pour clean water into the pond or swimming pool. It;s good to aerate the water to provide enough oxygen to fish and plants. You can also throw into the pond underwater species which oxygenating water such as pondweed, water milfoils or hornwort. In summer, the algae are a serious problem that make the water in the pond is changing into dense green soup. The main reason for their appearance are fallen leaves, flowers, rotting stems and remnants of uneaten fish feed. Water flora greatly reduces the appearance of algae, but to fulfill their role plants floating on the surface of the water should cover from the 1/3 to 1/2 surface of the garden pond. An effective method is to install a biological filter with UV lamp. Algae can be picked up by a rake or by a dense mesh.




Ornamental plants. The main flowering ornaments in plots and gardens in this period are: lupine, purple coneflower, hydrangeas, camomile, larkspur, nasturtiums, sunflowers, carnation bearded. For prolong the flowering and ensure further growth we should remove faded, withered flowers from all plants. Plants in flowerbeds require regular watering, weeding, looseing and fertilizing soil.


Many gardeners can not imagine leaving out their tended allotments without a care in the summer. There are some garden owners, especially the younger ones, who regularly go on summer vacation. In this case, you need to prepare land for a long absence of its users. Preparation of the plants to survive periodic droughts in good shape is to stimulate them to slightly deeper rooting. For this purpose, allotment should be watered rare, but abundant. Flowerbeds require watering when the soil is clearly dehydrated at a depth of 5-10 cm. In the period without rain it's enough if we water the allotment once a week solidly. For an optimal supply of water we should spray the plants with fine droplets so the water have time to slowly soak into the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm. For every square meter should be provided from 10 litters of water for shallow rooted plants, up to 30 litters for deep-rooting plants. Practice by inexperienced gardeners daily light spray can bring more damages than good. The plants are rooting shallowly below the surface of the ground and weed seeds have better conditions for germination. In this case, a few days lack of rain makes the most of the roots in the top layer of soil dries up and the plants wither. Avoid watering often and weak, and too rapid and extensive, after which the water flows and does not penetrate into the soil. Rare, but abundant watering allows airing of the soil. Penetrating into the soil, water displaces from soil used air containing carbon dioxide and involves fresh air, used by plant roots to breathe. Before going on a vacation you need to well water the allotment to ensure a sufficient supply of water for the duration of the absence. An effective way to long-term water retention in the soil is mulching. This procedure consists in covering the soil around the plants with bedding or mat nursery. It also provides other benefit - limited germination and growth of weeds, protects soil from encrusting and reduces the leaching of nutrients from the soil. The most commonly used bedding is bark of the coniferous or deciduous trees, but for this purpose other bedding can be used, which are readily available on lots of allotments such as: leaves, grass clippings, shredded stems and branches, straw, sawdust. We can also use black foil or agrofibre.


Fruit-growing. In July ripe fruit of many varieties of trees and shrubs. We must provide them the right amount of water and nutrients, because then produce fine-looking and tastier fruits. Regular watering is recommended, preferably every two weeks with high doses of water keeping in mind the extensive root system of fruit trees. We can reduce the evaporation of water from the soil by loosening after each abundant watering or rain. Mulching also reduces water losses. Usually we spread the mulch in early season.


After harvesting the cherries we begin trimming trees of this species. Just like in the early spring, it's loosen crowns and reduce size of trees. Trimming in this period helps to avoid gumming of wounds and first of all infections and diseases of wood and bark. Mature cherries trees should be overexposed. We should also remove branches excessively thickened and shorten the other branches.




Seedlings. With geraniums, fuchsias verbena and other balcony flowers we can now prepare seedlings for next year. For this purpose we cut the tops of the shoots (6-8 cm length) and put them into a box with wet ground and often sprinkle. Rooted plants we plant individually in pots. In autumn they need to be moved to a bright room where they wait till spring.


Time for meadow-saffron's. These plants have unusual for bulbous plants life cycle. In spring they develop large lance-shaped leaves, and the goblet-shaped flowers appear in the autumn. In August meadow-saffron's are passing rest period. In this time you can buy, exaggerate and share their tubers. We put them in the ground at a depth of about 15 cm, at intervals of 20-25 cm. They will bloom after a month and decorate autumn flowerbeds with white or pink flowers. Not many plants blooms at this time of year.


Strengthening wisteria. If we want this powerful and impressive creeper to burst into beautiful dangling clusters of flowers next year, now it's worth to slightly cut them. The best time to do this is first half of August, when the buds hasn't formed yet. Choose the most impressive this year's shoots and shorten them about ¹ / 3 of the length. From the remaining shoots we remove flower buds, which this year failed to developed. These treatments will strengthen the plant and allow to bear a lot of flowers in the spring.


Grapes. Fruit of the vine love to bath in the sun. They are then much sweeter and have more intense colour. To the sun came up to them without interference, it's worth to trim some of this year's shoots. It's good to do it gradually over a few days and during cloudy weather so the suddenly exposed skin will not sunburn, which could lead to the formation of spots on the fruits.


Transplanting. We plant coniferous and deciduous evergreen shrubs. For a few days after planting we must watering them abundantly and shading with agrofibre or a thick paper. On this how they adopt, depending their resistance to frost during the first winter.




Protection for bulbs. Perennial spring bulbs (tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocuses) should be planted in a special plastic or metal baskets that can be purchased at garden stores. They will protect plants from rodents, great eater of bulbs. Perennials Bulbs should be planted in a sandy-clayey soil rich in humus. In chosen place we spill fertilizer at a dose of 50-80 g / m², and then dig the soil. Bulbs we place at a depth equal to three times of their height.


Weeds. Very often, on the garden paths, even those hardened, appear weeds and unwanted seedlings of various plants. Removing them from between the gravel or stone tiles is not easy. Some people try to get rid of the intruders sprinkling surface with salt, but it can be dangerous for plants on nearby discounts. Best is to use herbicide which selection is huge: Roundup eliminate all the plants, Fusilade grass and other species of monocots and Mniszek, Bofix and Starane eliminate all of broadleaf weeds.


Autumn cleaning the pond. If we wont to have a clean water in our pond also in next season we need to, till late autumn, systematically remove all parts of the plants and leaves which has fallen into it. The point is to not let them settled at the bottom and rot. We should also clean the pond of mud and slime, but we need to do this very carefully to do not make the water cloudy. The best way is to vacuum the pollutants with pump or a vacuum cleaner.


Snails. These troublesome pests in one night can disfigure entire bed of flowers. Effective can be scattering between plants a special preparations for snails. When there are less of them, we can collect them by hand or catch them into traps and reach on the distant wastelands. It's also good to to apply treatments which make snails life more difficult: eliminate piles of branches and stones, where they willingly protect, often even the ground on flowerbeds to destroy their hideouts, watering the plants only in the morning and along the flowerbeds pour sawdust or spruce needles bars, with a width of 15 cm.


Some vegetables don't have to be digged out in the autumn. It's worth to leave on patch kale, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and even parsley. They will continue to grow despite the cold weather and we'll be able to collect them for another few weeks. Kale and parsley leaves appear green in the early spring, and even in winter, when the thaw comes. So they can be an aromatic source of fresh vitamins long before the arrival of spring.


White deposit on plants occurring in late summer and autumn should be a wake-up call. It is a sign of fungal disease. The leaves look like sprinkled with flour and hence the name of the infection - powdery mildew (other, so-called. Alleged causes yellowish spots). To stop the spread of the disease, you need to spray the plants with a suitable chemical for example Saprol, Nimrod, Folicur or organic preparations Biosept (grapefruit extract) and Bio Blatt (extracted from soy). The procedure must be repeated several times at intervals of 3-4 days.

TORSEED – Przedsiębiorstwo Nasiennictwa Ogrodniczego i Szkółkarstwa S.A. w Toruniu EN